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Value Dry / Sales pitch

1 Alexandria, VA, United States Review updated:
Contact information:

Salesman came to our house and immediately demanded that my wife be present for the sales pitch. He then proceeded to rip carpets up from the basement floor then failed to reinstall them properly.
My wife was working at home that day and needed to tend to her responsibilities be he again demanded her full attention. I assured him that I was fully able to relay his sales pitch to her. He insisted that she pay attention. Aggravatedly, I asked him to make his pitch. He, again insisted that he needed her to listen. I then told him that he was being rude and I asked him to leave. He refused! I had to threaten to call the police. He STILL insisted on making his pitch. I nearly had to throw him out.
I don't care how good a product they might say they have it was not worth the rude, mean-spirited, uncomfortably hard sales pitch this clown offered. I would NEVER buy from these people!!!

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Comments

  • Pr
      15th of Dec, 2008
    -1 Votes

    I talked to a representative from Value Dry. I am in MA and wanted an estimate for a work. They gave me an appointment for Saturday 27th Dec. Then the representative insisted that all owners of the home be present when the repair person comes. I asked why this was necessary and she gave me some crappy reason.

    This made be suspicious because I had found this company from a Google search. So I immediately canceled the appointment. I also called back to ask them to delete my information from their database.

    After reading this complaint, I am glad I canceled it.

  • Ki
      4th of Feb, 2009
    0 Votes

    We had Value Dry out to our home and they were very pleasant. The representative explained everything in detail. My husband and I had many questions that I felt were answered thoroughly. The representative took the time to answer questions that were of concern to us and was very respectful of our needs. We did end up contracting Value Dry to solve our problem and I felt that everything that they said in the initial meeting was followed through on. The crew that came to our home was very hard working and was also respectful of our concerns. Over all Value Dry did a wonderful job on our home and I would recommend this company.

  • Va
      28th of Apr, 2009
    0 Votes

    Mr. Tiller,

    First, Value Dry would like to apologize for your unpleasant experience with the Free Estimate that we came to your home to provide. At Value Dry we are committed to making sure that all homeowners are aware of what we will be doing in their home to address their basement moisture problem. Since heavy equipment is used during the process, we want homeowners to know that we take certain health precautions to ensure the safety of our customers. It is important that all homeowners are abreast of the process so there are no miscommunications during system installations. In addition, there are decisions that need to be made by the homeowner(s) during the inspection and presentation.

    It has been our experience that all homeowners judge the quality of our work during the installation process as well as once we are finished. It has also been our experience that when all parties are not informed of the process, questions arise during or after the installation that were covered in the initial inspection. If upon arrival all parties can’t be attentive during the free estimate, inspectors are instructed to reschedule at a time when all parties can be attentive. Our scheduling department does explain the all attentive homeowners’ policy very clearly over the phone during the scheduling process. It is clear that the inspector in your case did not politely explain this policy and offer to reschedule the appointment. Value Dry Management apologizes for that.

    It is apparent that the inspector did not handle the situation properly in your case. Value Dry management would like to have the opportunity to speak with you regarding this or any part of your experience to ensure we can improve wherever possible. We are flexible in scheduling our free estimates and we will work with any customer to make sure the estimate is scheduled at a convenient time for all homeowners to be attentive.

    The quality of our workmanship, job-site safety, satisfaction of our customers and the results of our installations are always our highest priority.

    Regards,
    Value Dry Management

  • Ba
      23rd of Mar, 2010
    0 Votes

    Well I have been in search of a company to take care of my basement issues for the last month. I am located in Mass, and have several different choices.
    I have narrowed down my issue to one side of the basement, and needing one sump pump, no battery back-up.

    I have made appointments with approximately 6 contractors, so I can compare each company's proposed solutions and costs. So far here are my opinions:

    American Dry Basement: Made an appointment and didn't show. When I called the service to see if they were planning on showing up, they apparently "paged" the sales man. Never heard from them again...Out of the running

    Basement Technologies: Salesman was rude proposed that I needed a full perimeter system at an outrageous cost. They demanded my wife to be present, which was a scheduling Hassel. My wife never came down stairs and they never asked... Not that I really cared about that... O yea and they guy took a crap in our bathroom. That’s just something you don't do as a salesman entering someone’s house.
    The salesman kept on calling me "guy". After he gave me the estimate, I explained that it was the highest estimate; he got angry and stormed out of the house saying something about how they have patents. I wasn't trying to talk him down; I was simply stating the fact that he was the highest bid...Out of the running.

    Value Dry: Again never showed. This one really annoyed me, as once again they demanded that my wife to be home. I really had better things to do then wait around for them to show. When I called the company they politely said "O we are sorry, we are going to have to re-schedule". No your not, you just lost my business...Out of the running

    East Coast Water Control: This is a small company out of Walpole Mass. Salesman was nice. They were quick to come out to my house with no Hassel about my wife being there. The only issue is again they were proposing a full perimeter system at an expensive cost. I really have no issues with them other then cost and that they didn't narrow down on the problem, but just went straight to the full perimeter system...I have to say out of the running do to cost.

    Forte Enterprises: Again this is a small company out of Milton. This is a one man show basically. He narrowed down on my issue, rather then going to a full perimeter system. He was good on following up with references and a proposed cost and all the necessary info on insurance. No real issues here... Still in the running

    Keller Waterproofing: Another small company based out of W. Boylston. I was originally upset because he was an hour and a half late, but he called and explained he was running late. I think he was having some issues with the person booking his appointments. After he did show up, he really won me over. First he narrowed on the issue. He gave me a cost for a small system and a larger system. Also he walked me around the house and pointed out that I have a sink hole near where my gutter is. No other contractor pointed this out. He proposed tying the gutter into the pump which I felt was a good solution. The costs were in-line with what I expected it to be... Combined reasonable cost and the fact that he did a thorough inspection and pointed out solutions that I hadn't considered, I would say that he is still in the running and ahead at this point.


    Basically what it is coming down to at this point. The larger companies are failing on both cost and service. The smaller "family owned business" have proposed more cost effective solutions. Also you are not getting a salesman who really doesn’t know much, but you are getting the person who will most likely do the work... Who cares if the technology is not paten, as long as it works?

  • Va
      27th of Jan, 2011
    0 Votes

    Value Dry Management. We track all leads and customers in a database. This person never called us.

  • Mi
      9th of Mar, 2011
    0 Votes

    We used Value Dry past year for waterproofing and to finish our basement off. The process it self was very unpleasant. We remained hopeful and completed the job. We took pictures of the poor work and sent them to value dry. They did the best they could to fix the unfixable. Next we waited to see If we would get water in our basement. Five months later we have water in our basement (this happened last night). We called the emergency number to be told we will have someone call you back but I don't know when. Our salesman pitched us the line of we will have someone to your house with in 24 hrs if you get water. Twelve hours later we get a call telling us they can't have a team out until the next day. Our renovations cost us near 40 thousand dollars. We are broke! I sit here in tears knowing that our new furniture, rug, washer/dryer, furnace, hot water heater, new electronic system, and bathroom sit under water. Our next move is an attorney. Don't make the same mistakes we did. Follow your gut. If you need to tell them how to do their job it's a bad sign.
    Michele
    Middletown NJ

  • Va
      16th of Mar, 2011
    0 Votes

    The average wait time in the industry is over 4 weeks for service calls. We offer an 8 business hour response time, although when there is heavy rain on weekends we often exceed that tremendously. I am hopeful that by now this issue has been resolved amicably. If not you can call me directly 866 328 2583 x 101 Jim Kesslick

  • Be
      7th of Jun, 2011
    0 Votes

    Today is June 6, 2011, I had the value dry company respond out to my home for a home inspection . The sales man was very rude and after about five minutes into his presentation asked for my wife. I advised him she stepped out and at this point became upset and irate . He then packed his bag an began to walk out. I asked him where he was going and his reply "you know the rules".

    Didn't even give me a chance to call my wife . Would not recommend company based on complaints and my experience.

  • Va
      9th of Jun, 2011
    0 Votes
    Value Dry - Crusader
    Value Dry Basements
    Philadephia
    Pennsylvania
    United States
    girlslikeroses.com

    The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held from November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France. Pope Urban II's speech on November 27 was the starting point of the First Crusade.

    [edit] BackgroundIn 1095 the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus sent envoys to the west requesting military assistance against the Seljuk Turks. The message was received by Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza; later that year, in November, Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter further. In convoking the council, Urban urged the bishops and abbots whom he addressed directly, to bring with them the prominent lords in their provinces.

    The Council lasted from November 19 to November 28, and was attended by about 300 clerics from throughout France. Urban discussed Cluniac reforms of the Church, and also extended the excommunication of Philip I of France for his adulterous remarriage to Bertrade of Montfort. On November 27, Urban spoke for the first time about the problems in the east, as he urged Western Christians fight against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Eastern Roman Empire.

    There are six main sources of information about this portion of the council: the anonymous Gesta Francorum ("The Deeds of the Franks" dated c. 1100/1101), [1] which influenced all versions of the speech except that by Fulcher of Chartres, who was present at the council; Robert the Monk, who may have been present; Baldric, archbishop of Dol; and Guibert de Nogent, who were not present at the council. All of these accounts were written down quite a bit later than the council, and all differ widely from one another. More important than the five composed speeches from the later sources, which tend to be colored by the authors' own views of crusading, is a letter that was written by Urban himself in December of 1095 referring to the council.

    According to Fulcher of Chartres who wrote a version of the speech in Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium, Urban addressed various abuses of the church such as simony and the lack of adherence to the Peace of God:

    Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honor.[2]
    In Fulcher's version of the speech, Urban does not mention Jerusalem at all. Urban does however cite the need of the eastern Byzantine Empire for aid against Muslim attack:

    Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God. For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire. If you permit them to continue thus for awhile with impurity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends.[2]
    In Gesta Dei per Francos by Robert the Monk, writing about twenty years after the council, an extended version of the speech presents the call to the "race of the Franks" as a peroration climaxing Urban's call for orthodoxy, reform and submission to the Church. Robert records that the pope asked western Christians, poor and rich, to come to the aid of the Greeks in the east, because "Deus vult, " ("God wills it"), the rousing cry with which Urban ended his final address. Robert records that Urban promised remission of sins for those who went to the east, although the 'Liber Lamberti', a source based on the notes of Bishop Lambert of Arras, who attended the Council, indicates that Urban offered the remission of all penance due from sins, what later came to be called an indulgence.[3] Robert makes Urban emphasize reconquering the Holy Land more than aiding the Greeks; the intervening decades and the events of the First Crusade had certainly shifted the emphasis. According to Robert, Urban listed various gruesome offenses of the Muslims: They circumcise the Christians, and the blood of the circumcision they either spread upon the altars or pour into the vases of the baptismal font.[2]

    and more alleged atrocities expressed in inflammatory images that were derived from hagiography. Perhaps with the wisdom of hindsight, Robert makes Urban advise that none but knights should go, not the old and feeble, nor priests without the permission of their bishops, "for such are more of a hindrance than aid, more of a burden than advantage... nor ought women to set out at all, without their husbands or brothers or legal guardians."

    About the same time, Baldrick, archbishop of Dol, also basing his account generally on Gesta Francorum, focused on the offenses of the Muslims and the reconquest of the Holy Land in terms likely to appeal to chivalry. Like Fulcher he also recorded that Urban deplored the violence of the Christian knights of Gaul. "It is less wicked to brandish your sword against Saracens, " Baldrick's Urban cries, comparing them to the Amalekites. The violence of knights he wanted to see ennobled in the service of Christ, defending the churches of the East as if defending a mother. Baldrick asserts that Urban, there on the spot, appointed the bishop of Puy to lead the crusade.

    Guibert, abbot of Nogent also made that Urban emphasize the reconquest of the Holy Land more than help to the Greeks or other Christians there. This emphasis may, as in the case of Robert and Baldric, be due to the influence of the Gesta Francorum's account of Jerusalem's reconquest. Urban's speech, in Nogent's version, emphasized the sanctity of the Holy Land, which must be in Christian possession so that prophecies about the end of the world could be fulfilled.

    On the last day of the council, a general call was sent out to the knights and nobles of France. Urban apparently knew in advance of the day that Raymond IV of Toulouse, exemplary for courage and piety, was fully prepared to take up arms. Urban himself spent a few months preaching the Crusade in France, while papal legates spread the word in the south of Italy, during which time the focus presumably turned from helping Alexius to taking Jerusalem; the general population, upon hearing about the Council, probably understood this to be the point of the Crusade in the first place.

    Urban's own letter, addressed to the faithful "waiting in Flanders, " does lament the fact that Turks, in addition to ravaging the "churches of God in the eastern regions, " have seized "the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection—and blasphemy to say it—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery." Yet he does not explicitly call for the reconquest of Jerusulem. Rather he explicitly calls for the military "liberation" of the Eastern Churches, and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to lead the Crusade, to set out on the day of the Assumption of Mary, August 15.

    History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation"[2]) is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.[3][4] Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[3][5][6][7] The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history.[8][9] Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.

    Amongst scholars, the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, forms the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence, along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world, have spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has evolved over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields including those that focus on certain regions and those which focus on certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in University studies.

    Etymology
    History by Frederick Dielman (1896)The word history comes from the root *weid- "know" or "see".[2]

    Ancient Greek ἱστορία means "inquiry" or "knowledge from inquiry", from ἵστωρ (hístōr) "judge" (from the Proto-Indo-European agent noun *wid-tor: "one who knows").[10] It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[11] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar).

    It was still in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).

    The word entered the English language in 1390 with the meaning of "relation of incidents, story". In Middle English, the meaning was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "record of past events" arises in the late 15th century. In German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story". The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.[12]

    Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word historiography.[11]

    Description
    The title page to The Historians' History of the WorldHistorians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a 'true discourse of past' through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race.[12] The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse.

    All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record.[13] The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the 'true past').

    The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and other times as part of the social sciences.[14] It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.[15] In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history.

    Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an oral tradition, and have attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. For the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.[16] But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.

    Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries. However, archaeology is constituted by a range of methodologies and approaches which are independent from history; that is to say, archaeology does not "fill the gaps" within textual sources. Indeed, Historical Archaeology is a specific branch of archaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. For example, Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical Annapolis, Maryland, USA has sought to understand the contradiction between textual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth apparent via the study of the total historical environment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at this time.

    There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, but also may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity.[17]

    History and prehistoryHuman history

    and prehistory
    This box: view · talk · edit

    ↑ before Homo (Pliocene)
    Three-age system prehistory
    Stone Age
    Lower Paleolithic: Homo, Homo erectus,
    Middle Paleolithic: early Homo sapiens
    Upper Paleolithic: behavioral modernity
    Neolithic: civilization
    Bronze Age
    Near East • India • Europe • China • Korea
    Iron Age
    Bronze Age collapse • Ancient Near East • India • Europe • China • Japan • Korea • Nigeria

    Recorded History
    Earliest records
    Antiquity
    Middle Ages
    Early modern
    Modern
    Contemporary

    see also: Modernity, Futurology
    ↓Future

    Further information: Protohistory
    The history of the world is the memory of the past experience of Homo sapiens sapiens around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written records. By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. Human history is marked both by a gradual accretion of discoveries and inventions, as well as by quantum leaps — paradigm shifts, revolutions — that comprise epochs in the material and spiritual evolution of humankind. By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America. Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world.[18] In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote:

    The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future. History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future. Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generations.[19]
    This definition includes within the scope of history the strong interests of peoples, such as Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Māori in the past, and the oral records maintained and transmitted to succeeding generations, even before their contact with European civilization.

    HistoriographyMain article: Historiography
    Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis). Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "Works of medieval history written during the 1960s"). Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the Philosophy of history. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians. Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives.

    Philosophy of historyHistory's philosophical questions
    What is the proper unit for the study of the human past — the individual? The polis? The civilization? The culture? Or the nation state?
    Are there broad patterns and progress? Are there cycles? Is human history random and devoid of any meaning?


    Main article: Philosophy of history
    Philosophy of history is a branch of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history. Philosophy of history should not be confused with historiography, which is the study of history as an academic discipline, and thus concerns its methods and practices, and its development as a discipline over time. Nor should philosophy of history be confused with the history of philosophy, which is the study of the development of philosophical ideas through time.

    Historical methodsFurther information: Historical method

    A depiction of the ancient Library of AlexandriaHistorical method basics
    The following questions are used by historians in modern work.

    1.When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)?
    2.Where was it produced (localization)?
    3.By whom was it produced (authorship)?
    4.From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)?
    5.In what original form was it produced (integrity)?
    6.What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?
    The first four are known as higher criticism; the fifth, lower criticism; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.


    The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.

    Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC – ca.425 BC)[20] has generally been acclaimed as the "father of history". However, his contemporary Thucydides (ca. 460 BC – ca. 400 BC) is credited with having first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention.[20] In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.[21]

    There were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han Dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (145–90 BC), author of the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian). For the quality of his timeless written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of Chinese Historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.[citation needed]

    Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the medieval period. Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.[17]

    In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, and he often referred to it as his "new science".[22] His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history, [23] and he is thus considered to be the "father of historiography"[24][25] or the "father of the philosophy of history".[26]

    In the West historians developed modern methods of historiography in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and Germany. The 19th century historian with greatest influence on methods was Leopold von Ranke in Germany.

    In the 20th century, academic historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or individuals, to more objective and complex analyses of social and intellectual forces. A major trend of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history more as a social science rather than as an art, which traditionally had been the case. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a diverse collection of scholars which included Fernand Braudel, E. H. Carr, Fritz Fischer, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Bruce Trigger, Marc Bloch, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Peter Gay, Robert Fogel, Lucien Febvre and Lawrence Stone. Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their multi-disciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history with political science, Fogel history with economics, Gay history with psychology, Trigger history with archeology while Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie have in varying and differing ways amalgamated history with sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics. More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship.

    In opposition to the claims of history as a social science, historians such as Hugh Trevor-Roper, John Lukacs, Donald Creighton, Gertrude Himmelfarb and Gerhard Ritter argued that the key to the historians' work was the power of the imagination, and hence contended that history should be understood as an art. French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf. histoire des mentalités). Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. Another genre of social history to emerge in the post-WWII era was Alltagsgeschichte (History of Everyday Life). Scholars such as Martin Broszat, Ian Kershaw and Detlev Peukert sought to examine what everyday life was like for ordinary people in 20th century Germany, especially in the Nazi period.

    Marxist historians such as Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene D. Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer and Christopher Hill have sought to validate Karl Marx's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In response to the Marxist interpretation of history, historians such as François Furet, Richard Pipes, J. C. D. Clark, Roland Mousnier, Henry Ashby Turner and Robert Conquest have offered anti-Marxist interpretations of history. Feminist historians such as Joan Wallach Scott, Claudia Koonz, Natalie Zemon Davis, Sheila Rowbotham, Gisela Bock, Gerda Lerner, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, and Lynn Hunt have argued for the importance of studying the experience of women in the past. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources. In his 1997 book In Defence of History, Richard J. Evans, a professor of modern history at Cambridge University, defended the worth of history. Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttle's 1994 book, The Killing of History.

    HistoriansMain: List of historians
    Professional and amateur historians discover, collect, organize, and present information about past events. In lists of historians, historians can be grouped by order of the historical period in which they were writing, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialized. Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also frequently included.

    Areas of studyParticular studies and fields
    These are approaches to history; not listed are histories of other fields, such as history of science, history of mathematics and history of philosophy.

    Ancient history : the study from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages.
    Atlantic history: the study of the history of people living on or near the Atlantic Ocean.
    Art History: the study of changes in and social context of art.
    Big History: study of history on a large scale across long time frames and epochs through a multi-disciplinary approach.
    Chronology: science of localizing historical events in time.
    Comparative history: historical analysis of social and cultural entities not confined to national boundaries.
    Contemporary history: the study of historical events that are immediately relevant to the present time.
    Counterfactual history: the study of historical events as they might have happened in different causal circumstances.
    Cultural history: the study of culture in the past.
    Digital History: the use of computing technologies to produce digital scholarship.
    Economic History: the study of economies in the past.
    Futurology: study of the future: researches the medium to long-term future of societies and of the physical world.
    Intellectual history: the study of ideas in the context of the cultures that produced them and their development over time.
    Maritime history: the study of maritime transport and all the connected subjects.
    Modern history : the study of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages.
    Military History: the study of warfare and wars in history and what is sometimes considered to be a sub-branch of military history, Naval History.
    Natural history: the study of the development of the cosmos, the Earth, biology and interactions thereof.
    Paleography: study of ancient texts.
    People's history: historical work from the perspective of common people.
    Political history: the study of politics in the past.
    Psychohistory: study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
    Pseudohistory: study about the past that falls outside the domain of mainstream history (sometimes it is an equivalent of pseudoscience).
    Social History: the study of the process of social change throughout history.
    Universal history: basic to the Western tradition of historiography.
    Women's history: the history of female human beings. Gender history is related and covers the perspective of gender.
    World History: the study of history from a global perspective.


    PeriodsMain article: Periodization
    Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur in particular blocks of time. Historians give these periods of time names in order to allow "organising ideas and classificatory generalisations" to be used by historians.[27] The names given to a period can vary with geographical location, as can the dates of the start and end of a particular period. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the dating system used. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied.[28]

    Geographical locationsParticular geographical locations can form the basis of historical study, for example, continents, countries and cities. Understanding why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to geography. Weather patterns, the water supply, and the landscape of a place all affect the lives of the people who live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, studying the geography of Egypt is essential. Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the Nile River, which flooded each year, depositing soil on its banks. The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed the people in the cities. That meant everyone did not have to farm, so some people could perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization.

    WorldMain article: History of the world
    World history is the study of major civilizations over the last 3000 years or so. It has led to highly controversial interpretations by Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee, among others. World history is especially important as a teaching field. It has increasingly entered the university curriculum in the U.S., in many cases replacing courses in Western Civilization, that had a focus on Europe and the U.S. World history adds extensive new material on Asia, Africa and Latin America.

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      9th of Jun, 2011
    -1 Votes

    November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France. Pope Urban II's speech on November 27 was the starting point of the First Crusade.

    [edit] BackgroundIn 1095 the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus sent envoys to the west requesting military assistance against the Seljuk Turks. The message was received by Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza; later that year, in November, Urban called the Council of Clermont to discuss the matter further. In convoking the council, Urban urged the bishops and abbots whom he addressed directly, to bring with them the prominent lords in their provinces.

    The Council lasted from November 19 to November 28, and was attended by about 300 clerics from throughout France. Urban discussed Cluniac reforms of the Church, and also extended the excommunication of Philip I of France for his adulterous remarriage to Bertrade of Montfort. On November 27, Urban spoke for the first time about the problems in the east, as he urged Western Christians fight against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Eastern Roman Empire.

    There are six main sources of information about this portion of the council: the anonymous Gesta Francorum ("The Deeds of the Franks" dated c. 1100/1101), [1] which influenced all versions of the speech except that by Fulcher of Chartres, who was present at the council; Robert the Monk, who may have been present; Baldric, archbishop of Dol; and Guibert de Nogent, who were not present at the council. All of these accounts were written down quite a bit later than the council, and all differ widely from one another. More important than the five composed speeches from the later sources, which tend to be colored by the authors' own views of crusading, is a letter that was written by Urban himself in December of 1095 referring to the council.

    According to Fulcher of Chartres who wrote a version of the speech in Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium, Urban addressed various abuses of the church such as simony and the lack of adherence to the Peace of God:

    Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Let those who for a long time, have been robbers, now become knights. Let those who have been fighting against their brothers and relatives now fight in a proper way against the barbarians. Let those who have been serving as mercenaries for small pay now obtain the eternal reward. Let those who have been wearing themselves out in both body and soul now work for a double honor.[2]
    In Fulcher's version of the speech, Urban does not mention Jerusalem at all. Urban does however cite the need of the eastern Byzantine Empire for aid against Muslim attack:

    Freshly quickened by the divine correction, you must apply the strength of your righteousness to another matter which concerns you as well as God. For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Greek empire] as far west as the shore of the Mediterranean and the Hellespont, which is called the Arm of St. George. They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire. If you permit them to continue thus for awhile with impurity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends.[2]
    In Gesta Dei per Francos by Robert the Monk, writing about twenty years after the council, an extended version of the speech presents the call to the "race of the Franks" as a peroration climaxing Urban's call for orthodoxy, reform and submission to the Church. Robert records that the pope asked western Christians, poor and rich, to come to the aid of the Greeks in the east, because "Deus vult, " ("God wills it"), the rousing cry with which Urban ended his final address. Robert records that Urban promised remission of sins for those who went to the east, although the 'Liber Lamberti', a source based on the notes of Bishop Lambert of Arras, who attended the Council, indicates that Urban offered the remission of all penance due from sins, what later came to be called an indulgence.[3] Robert makes Urban emphasize reconquering the Holy Land more than aiding the Greeks; the intervening decades and the events of the First Crusade had certainly shifted the emphasis. According to Robert, Urban listed various gruesome offenses of the Muslims: They circumcise the Christians, and the blood of the circumcision they either spread upon the altars or pour into the vases of the baptismal font.[2]

    and more alleged atrocities expressed in inflammatory images that were derived from hagiography. Perhaps with the wisdom of hindsight, Robert makes Urban advise that none but knights should go, not the old and feeble, nor priests without the permission of their bishops, "for such are more of a hindrance than aid, more of a burden than advantage... nor ought women to set out at all, without their husbands or brothers or legal guardians."

    About the same time, Baldrick, archbishop of Dol, also basing his account generally on Gesta Francorum, focused on the offenses of the Muslims and the reconquest of the Holy Land in terms likely to appeal to chivalry. Like Fulcher he also recorded that Urban deplored the violence of the Christian knights of Gaul. "It is less wicked to brandish your sword against Saracens, " Baldrick's Urban cries, comparing them to the Amalekites. The violence of knights he wanted to see ennobled in the service of Christ, defending the churches of the East as if defending a mother. Baldrick asserts that Urban, there on the spot, appointed the bishop of Puy to lead the crusade.

    Guibert, abbot of Nogent also made that Urban emphasize the reconquest of the Holy Land more than help to the Greeks or other Christians there. This emphasis may, as in the case of Robert and Baldric, be due to the influence of the Gesta Francorum's account of Jerusalem's reconquest. Urban's speech, in Nogent's version, emphasized the sanctity of the Holy Land, which must be in Christian possession so that prophecies about the end of the world could be fulfilled.

    On the last day of the council, a general call was sent out to the knights and nobles of France. Urban apparently knew in advance of the day that Raymond IV of Toulouse, exemplary for courage and piety, was fully prepared to take up arms. Urban himself spent a few months preaching the Crusade in France, while papal legates spread the word in the south of Italy, during which time the focus presumably turned from helping Alexius to taking Jerusalem; the general population, upon hearing about the Council, probably understood this to be the point of the Crusade in the first place.

    Urban's own letter, addressed to the faithful "waiting in Flanders, " does lament the fact that Turks, in addition to ravaging the "churches of God in the eastern regions, " have seized "the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection—and blasphemy to say it—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery." Yet he does not explicitly call for the reconquest of Jerusulem. Rather he explicitly calls for the military "liberation" of the Eastern Churches, and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to lead the Crusade, to set out on the day of the Assumption of Mary, August 15.

    History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation"[2]) is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.[3][4] Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[3][5][6][7] The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history.[8][9] Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.

    Amongst scholars, the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, forms the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence, along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world, have spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has evolved over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields including those that focus on certain regions and those which focus on certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in University studies.

    Etymology
    History by Frederick Dielman (1896)The word history comes from the root *weid- "know" or "see".[2]

    Ancient Greek ἱστορία means "inquiry" or "knowledge from inquiry", from ἵστωρ (hístōr) "judge" (from the Proto-Indo-European agent noun *wid-tor: "one who knows").[10] It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[11] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar).

    It was still in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).

    The word entered the English language in 1390 with the meaning of "relation of incidents, story". In Middle English, the meaning was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "record of past events" arises in the late 15th century. In German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story". The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.[12]

    Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word historiography.[11]

    Description
    The title page to The Historians' History of the WorldHistorians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a 'true discourse of past' through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race.[12] The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse.

    All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record.[13] The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the 'true past').

    The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and other times as part of the social sciences.[14] It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.[15] In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history.

    Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an oral tradition, and have attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. For the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.[16] But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.

    Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries. However, archaeology is constituted by a range of methodologies and approaches which are independent from history; that is to say, archaeology does not "fill the gaps" within textual sources. Indeed, Historical Archaeology is a specific branch of archaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. For example, Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical Annapolis, Maryland, USA has sought to understand the contradiction between textual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth apparent via the study of the total historical environment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at this time.

    There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, but also may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity.[17]

    History and prehistoryHuman history

    and prehistory
    This box: view · talk · edit

    ↑ before Homo (Pliocene)
    Three-age system prehistory
    Stone Age
    Lower Paleolithic: Homo, Homo erectus,
    Middle Paleolithic: early Homo sapiens
    Upper Paleolithic: behavioral modernity
    Neolithic: civilization
    Bronze Age
    Near East • India • Europe • China • Korea
    Iron Age
    Bronze Age collapse • Ancient Near East • India • Europe • China • Japan • Korea • Nigeria

    Recorded History
    Earliest records
    Antiquity
    Middle Ages
    Early modern
    Modern
    Contemporary

    see also: Modernity, Futurology
    ↓Future

    Further information: Protohistory
    The history of the world is the memory of the past experience of Homo sapiens sapiens around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written records. By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. Human history is marked both by a gradual accretion of discoveries and inventions, as well as by quantum leaps — paradigm shifts, revolutions — that comprise epochs in the material and spiritual evolution of humankind. By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America. Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world.[18] In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote:

    The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future. History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future. Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generations.[19]
    This definition includes within the scope of history the strong interests of peoples, such as Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Māori in the past, and the oral records maintained and transmitted to succeeding generations, even before their contact with European civilization.

    HistoriographyMain article: Historiography
    Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis). Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "Works of medieval history written during the 1960s"). Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the Philosophy of history. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians. Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives.

    Philosophy of historyHistory's philosophical questions
    What is the proper unit for the study of the human past — the individual? The polis? The civilization? The culture? Or the nation state?
    Are there broad patterns and progress? Are there cycles? Is human history random and devoid of any meaning?


    Main article: Philosophy of history
    Philosophy of history is a branch of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history. Philosophy of history should not be confused with historiography, which is the study of history as an academic discipline, and thus concerns its methods and practices, and its development as a discipline over time. Nor should philosophy of history be confused with the history of philosophy, which is the study of the development of philosophical ideas through time.

    Historical methodsFurther information: Historical method

    A depiction of the ancient Library of AlexandriaHistorical method basics
    The following questions are used by historians in modern work.

    1.When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)?
    2.Where was it produced (localization)?
    3.By whom was it produced (authorship)?
    4.From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)?
    5.In what original form was it produced (integrity)?
    6.What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?
    The first four are known as higher criticism; the fifth, lower criticism; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.


    The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.

    Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC – ca.425 BC)[20] has generally been acclaimed as the "father of history". However, his contemporary Thucydides (ca. 460 BC – ca. 400 BC) is credited with having first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention.[20] In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.[21]

    There were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han Dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (145–90 BC), author of the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian). For the quality of his timeless written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of Chinese Historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.[citation needed]

    Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the medieval period. Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.[17]

    In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, and he often referred to it as his "new science".[22] His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history, [23] and he is thus considered to be the "father of historiography"[24][25] or the "father of the philosophy of history".[26]

    In the West historians developed modern methods of historiography in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and Germany. The 19th century historian with greatest influence on methods was Leopold von Ranke in Germany.

    In the 20th century, academic historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or individuals, to more objective and complex analyses of social and intellectual forces. A major trend of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history more as a social science rather than as an art, which traditionally had been the case. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a diverse collection of scholars which included Fernand Braudel, E. H. Carr, Fritz Fischer, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Bruce Trigger, Marc Bloch, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Peter Gay, Robert Fogel, Lucien Febvre and Lawrence Stone. Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their multi-disciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history with political science, Fogel history with economics, Gay history with psychology, Trigger history with archeology while Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie have in varying and differing ways amalgamated history with sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics. More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship.

    In opposition to the claims of history as a social science, historians such as Hugh Trevor-Roper, John Lukacs, Donald Creighton, Gertrude Himmelfarb and Gerhard Ritter argued that the key to the historians' work was the power of the imagination, and hence contended that history should be understood as an art. French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf. histoire des mentalités). Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. Another genre of social history to emerge in the post-WWII era was Alltagsgeschichte (History of Everyday Life). Scholars such as Martin Broszat, Ian Kershaw and Detlev Peukert sought to examine what everyday life was like for ordinary people in 20th century Germany, especially in the Nazi period.

    Marxist historians such as Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene D. Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer and Christopher Hill have sought to validate Karl Marx's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In response to the Marxist interpretation of history, historians such as François Furet, Richard Pipes, J. C. D. Clark, Roland Mousnier, Henry Ashby Turner and Robert Conquest have offered anti-Marxist interpretations of history. Feminist historians such as Joan Wallach Scott, Claudia Koonz, Natalie Zemon Davis, Sheila Rowbotham, Gisela Bock, Gerda Lerner, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, and Lynn Hunt have argued for the importance of studying the experience of women in the past. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources. In his 1997 book In Defence of History, Richard J. Evans, a professor of modern history at Cambridge University, defended the worth of history. Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttle's 1994 book, The Killing of History.

    HistoriansMain: List of historians
    Professional and amateur historians discover, collect, organize, and present information about past events. In lists of historians, historians can be grouped by order of the historical period in which they were writing, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialized. Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also frequently included.

    Areas of studyParticular studies and fields
    These are approaches to history; not listed are histories of other fields, such as history of science, history of mathematics and history of philosophy.

    Ancient history : the study from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages.
    Atlantic history: the study of the history of people living on or near the Atlantic Ocean.
    Art History: the study of changes in and social context of art.
    Big History: study of history on a large scale across long time frames and epochs through a multi-disciplinary approach.
    Chronology: science of localizing historical events in time.
    Comparative history: historical analysis of social and cultural entities not confined to national boundaries.
    Contemporary history: the study of historical events that are immediately relevant to the present time.
    Counterfactual history: the study of historical events as they might have happened in different causal circumstances.
    Cultural history: the study of culture in the past.
    Digital History: the use of computing technologies to produce digital scholarship.
    Economic History: the study of economies in the past.
    Futurology: study of the future: researches the medium to long-term future of societies and of the physical world.
    Intellectual history: the study of ideas in the context of the cultures that produced them and their development over time.
    Maritime history: the study of maritime transport and all the connected subjects.
    Modern history : the study of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages.
    Military History: the study of warfare and wars in history and what is sometimes considered to be a sub-branch of military history, Naval History.
    Natural history: the study of the development of the cosmos, the Earth, biology and interactions thereof.
    Paleography: study of ancient texts.
    People's history: historical work from the perspective of common people.
    Political history: the study of politics in the past.
    Psychohistory: study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
    Pseudohistory: study about the past that falls outside the domain of mainstream history (sometimes it is an equivalent of pseudoscience).
    Social History: the study of the process of social change throughout history.
    Universal history: basic to the Western tradition of historiography.
    Women's history: the history of female human beings. Gender history is related and covers the perspective of gender.
    World History: the study of history from a global perspective.


    PeriodsMain article: Periodization
    Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur in particular blocks of time. Historians give these periods of time names in order to allow "organising ideas and classificatory generalisations" to be used by historians.[27] The names given to a period can vary with geographical location, as can the dates of the start and end of a particular period. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the dating system used. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied.[28]

    Geographical locationsParticular geographical locations can form the basis of historical study, for example, continents, countries and cities. Understanding why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to geography. Weather patterns, the water supply, and the landscape of a place all affect the lives of the people who live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, studying the geography of Egypt is essential. Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the Nile River, which flooded each year, depositing soil on its banks. The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed the people in the cities. That meant everyone did not have to farm, so some people could perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization.

    WorldMain article: History of the world
    World history is the study of major civilizations over the last 3000 years or so. It has led to highly controversial interpretations by Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee, among others. World history is especially important as a teaching field. It has increasingly entered the university curriculum in the U.S., in many cases replacing courses in Western Civilization, that had a focus on Europe and the U.S. World history adds extensive new material on Asia, Africa and Latin America.

  • Th
      23rd of Dec, 2014
    +1 Votes

    They are nothing but scamsters. One of my basement cinder block walls (inside wall) was damp and seemed to be getting worse so I looked around the internet and found valuedry. I called them and they sent a guy who without checking anything started telling me I needed a new drainage system as there was a lot of ground water build up. When I started asking questions he got very rude and abusive and I had to ask him to leave. They then sent a second guy (stupid of me to agree). This guy comes to the same conclusion - I need a new drainage system, the wall was damp due to ground water. I have a sump pump in the basement which was bone dry at the moment. He then wanted my wife to be present while he gave us his sales pitch. My wife said she didn't have the time and left :) He then gave me his sales pitch for 45 minutes and gave me a quote - $9100 !
    I then called a plumber who told me the hot water pipe which was going through the cinder block was leaking..he fixed it for $400 !!

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